How to Grow Pomegranate Trees Gardener’s Path 2023

How to Grow Pomegranate Trees Gardener’s Path 2023

In recent decades there has been a remarkable increase in interest in the study of pomegranate cultivation, both in the plant material of the pomegranate and in the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of its fruits and its different parts. pomegranate tree

The growing interest in the study of pomegranate cultivation

In recent decades there has been a remarkable increase in interest in the study of pomegranate cultivation, both in the plant material of the pomegranate and in the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of its fruits and its different parts. pomegranate tree

In recent years, different groups of researchers in the Mediterranean area have been interested in this and other underutilized fruit species, which has led to the creation, in 1994, of a working group on the subject supported by CIHEAM (International Center for High Agronomic Studies ). This research effort must be discussed and transmitted to society to spread knowledge and obtain the best use of the species. pomegranate tree

Pomegranate cultivation introduction

The cultivation of pomegranate has been known since ancient times. However, advances in the study of the species have been minimal, mainly due to the lack of research teams that continuously dedicate efforts to the cultivation of the pomegranate, so some problems still exist. Current, such as the cracking or the hardness of the seeds, were already enunciated by Columella (S. I AD) in his book V and later by Alonso de Herrera (S. XVI AD) in his work General Agriculture. pomegranate tree

The cultivation of the pomegranate adapts to all types of soils and climates.

Pomegranate cultivation adapts to all types of soils and climates; it is tolerant to drought, salinity, iron chlorosis, and active limestone and can vegetate in the worst growing conditions. The pomegranate in the southeast of Spain is often grown together with other fruit trees, such as the fig tree (Ficus carica L.) and the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), which are also very resistant to the factors listed above.

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The cultivation of the traditional pomegranate in Spain

In Spain, pomegranate cultivation has traditionally occupied salt marshland in the municipalities of Elche, Albatera, and Crevillente, cities where pomegranate cultivation is concentrated in the province of Alicante (Melgarejo & Martínez, 1992; Melgarejo, 1993).

Spain is the primary producer of pomegranates in the EU, with other large producers in the Mediterranean area, such as Turkey (Eurasian), which produces around 60,000 t, and Tunisia (North Africa), which has about 50,000 t. The difference in the cultivation of pomegranates between these countries and Spain is that while in the latter specialized intensive cultivation is carried out and the commercial network is highly developed, in the others, the cultivation is more extensive, less technical, and its retail network is less developed. , exporting approximately only 5% of the production (Melgarejo & Salazar, 2001)

Pomegranate cultivation area in Spain

The cultivated surface of the pomegranate in Spain reaches 2,325 ha with a production of 27,389 t, with the province of Alicante being the primary producer with 2,047 ha and 25,104 t (MAPA, 2007); that is to say, the cultivation is concentrated in this province with 88% of the national surface and 92% of the production, and practically the rest is cultivated in the neighboring region of Murcia.

Although the national average production is around 10.8 t/ha, well-cultivated plantations with homogeneous productive material reach 25-30 t/ha, making pomegranate cultivation therefore attractive to farmers since, in addition to the productivity achieved in recent years, the price of the fruit has been growing, above all due to the increase in knowledge about the fruit and its properties, so that last year prices of €1/Kg were reached in the field.

Objectives of the II International Symposium on the cultivation of pomegranate
The specific objectives pursued in this exhibition are:

– To present the current problems of the cultivation of pomegranates.

– Expose the varietal structure of the pomegranate in Spain.

– Expose some advances obtained in recent years, with particular reference to propagation techniques.

– Expose the possibilities of the pomegranate as a functional food, as an essential aspect for the expansion and revaluation of the crop.

Problems of the cultivation of the pomegranate

The problems that affect the species generally are those derived from the lack of selection of the existing plant material and the scarcity of research teams dedicated to its study. Knowledge about its use, chemical composition, and medicinal properties has advanced considerably, especially in recent years.

The problem and precise actions to increase its profitability and use can be summarized in the following points:

How to Grow Pomegranate Trees Gardener’s Path 2023

Make a selection of existing plant material for the cultivation of pomegranate.

The cultivation of the pomegranate needs to select the existing plant material, classify it and make it available to the sector. The search for new varieties will make it possible to stagger production and improve quality in such essential aspects as color, size, flavor, the crude fiber content of the seeds, resistance to weathering or sunlight, more excellent resistance to cracking, and higher seed yield.

During the last fifteen years, selections have been made in different European countries, highlighting the existing germplasm bank at the Higher Polytechnic School of Orihuela (Miguel Hernández University of Elche); In this, the characteristics of the different clones have been studied, so that at present for the cultivation of pomegranates, the material is available that can significantly improve the average productivity and quality of current plantations. 

Likewise, for the cultivation of the pomegranate, rootstocks must be sought that allow better adaptation to the environment and with resistance to scalding of the trunk, which is one of the problems that most affect the rootstock, as we have been able to observe in commercial plantations.

Cultivation of the pomegranate that allows for optimizing the quality of the product

A plan to improve the cultivation techniques of the pomegranate must be established to optimize the quality of the product. Significant progress has also been made in this regard, highlighting the knowledge gained on nutrition and propagation of the species.

Increase production period

The production period should be lengthened to stagger marketing, starting earlier and finishing later, allowing us to compete with pomegranates from other countries such as Israel, Egypt, or Iran. In recent years, our research group has managed to select new clones for the cultivation of pomegranates, especially early ones that can advance the harvest by approximately one month.

Avoid marketing low-quality fruit.

It should be avoided that green fruits, with hard seeds, excessive content of crude fiber, packing, etc., are of low quality.

Increase the technological level of pomegranate cultivation

The technological level of handling warehouses must be increased, perfecting cold storage techniques, post-harvest treatments, etc., and product presentation. Significant progress has also been made in this field.

Facilitate the creation of companies

Facilitate the creation of companies of sufficient size to exert their influence on the market, individually or collectively, avoiding the fall in prices and making the technological implementation necessary for cultivating pomegranates more affordable and profitable.

Deepen the development and research

Research and development for mechanical shelling should be deepened since this process is the consumer’s main problem, facilitating increased consumption. This aspect will also allow and facilitate the following:

a) Market the peeled product in tubs as a fourth-range product.

b) Delve into freezing techniques for consumption at all times.

c) Obtain new derived products: juices, liqueurs, jams, preserves, jellies, grains in syrup, etc. A high level of quality has already been achieved in the manufacture of jellies, jams, and preserves; the industrial process for the manufacture of these products would make it possible to take advantage, at the same time, of the woody portion of the seeds.

d) The shelling process will also allow the fruit’s rind to be concentrated in the industry, with which it could be used for animal feed, to obtain tannins, as fuel, etc.

e) Grazed, cracked, packed, smaller sizes, etc. fruits, which represent an essential percentage, may be used; today, they are hardly usable, and on many occasions, they only serve to discredit the fresh product and compete in the market with the best quality, reducing prices. 

These aspects, essential for the development of the crop, were already enunciated by our group that obtained the first Spanish patent for this purpose; In the 1990s, different dissemination events were carried out on these aspects, which are now bearing fruit because the private company has already manufactured machines that peel and market the seeds (edible portion) in tubs ready for consumption, which is undoubtedly decisively influencing the increase in consumption and prices, also obtaining a significant added value in the process; Likewise, pomegranate juices are being marketed, and in some countries such as the USA, pills with pomegranate extracts are being marketed for the prevention of diseases.

Investigate the nutritional, dietary, and therapeutic qualities

It is necessary to continue investigating the nutritional, dietary, and therapeutic qualities that the product undoubtedly possesses. In addition to knowing them, they could be used to promote the marketed product. In the last five years, there has been a great interest from different research teams, especially to know the effects on health and the prevention of some diseases that, without a doubt, judging by their importance, will make the cultivation of the pomegranate to be revalued and increase in many areas of the world, as is happening in the USA, some South American countries and the other regions. Thus, in the USA, the medicinal properties of the pomegranate have jumped into the news, describing the pomegranate as “a health bomb.”

The denomination of origin is essential.

Lastly, to cultivate the pomegranate, it is essential to create the Denomination of Origin of the Pomegranate as a fundamental element to defend a quality standard in the affected areas, which will undoubtedly have a positive effect on the consumer and on the producer. 

To achieve this, in February 2008, the Elche Pomegranate Producers and Marketers Association met to defend, disseminate and promote the molars pomegranates produced between the municipalities of Elche and Albatera, whose national production is concentrated in these areas.

Varietal structure of the pomegranate crop

a) Mollar group. It consists of a large number of different individuals, which are characterized by their high quality, productivity, and harvest time. Also known by the name of Mollar de Elche. Harvesting takes place between September 20 and November 15.

b) Valencian Group. Also made up of many individuals characterized by lower quality than the Mollar group and for being harvested early. The trees are significantly smaller, and less production is usually obtained per unit area under traditional farming conditions. At the same time, sales prices are generally considerably higher due to product scarcity at harvest time. Harvesting takes place between August 5 and September 20.

Cultivation of the Pomegranate advances obtained in recent years.

The advances in the last 30 years are significant. However, we will focus on a few of great importance for the profitability of cultivation in the arid and semi-arid regions of the planet in which the cultivation of many species is sometimes not possible or not profitable. In these areas, the pomegranate can be a beneficial crop alternative, without this meaning that it is not profitable under the best growing conditions (soil, climate, and water), in which it currently competes with other more important species.

Cultivation of pomegranate new plant materials

At Miguel Hernández University, we have the largest pomegranate germplasm bank in the EU, a bank in which most of the cultivars of the Mollar group and the Valencian group are found. Today it can be assured that the varietal structure of commercial plantations must be renewed since the mixture of different clones in the cultivation plots reduces production in quantity and quality. The propagation of some of the Mollar de Elche pomegranate clones could significantly increase the harvests obtained and their quality; For this reason, and without going into details about these select clones, we highlight the importance of studying new techniques for the propagation of the species, an aspect that has been addressed and resolved, as we will explain later,

The search for new clones to extend the pomegranate marketing campaign so that the marketing period could be lengthened, avoiding the concentration of a large quantity of product in the markets in a few months, has also experienced significant progress because if the average marketing period for the pomegranates of the Valencian group was centered on September. Of the molars between October and November, today we can say that new Valencian clones have been selected that can be harvested at the beginning of August, so For this group, the harvest period has been extended to two months, while in the molars through the application of suitable cultivation techniques, the harvest has been advanced by about fifteen days.

Finally, searching for new clones has led us to obtain unique individuals using classical improvement techniques. Today we can say that, pending the completion of experimentation with new individuals in different areas, we already have several that can match or exceed the organoleptic characteristics of the best Mollar clones. They surpass this group in exterior color due to their high anthocyanin content, although there are still aspects to improve in these new clones.

Cultivation of pomegranate propagation techniques

The seeds germinate quickly without needing a rest period. Still, the trees obtained are very heterogeneous; usually, the fruits are of non-commercial characteristics. This method is inappropriate for propagating cultivars and rootstocks since the trees received have varied expressions. Of fruits, from large to small, juicy to dry, dark red to whitish pink, and sweet to sour.

For this reason, grafting or woody cuttings are used for propagation; grafting is generally used when a varietal change is desired and less frequently for new plantations, except when the border pattern is used.

More and more is being used to obtain direct producers through woody cuttings of cultivated varieties, to reduce propagation costs, and because of the ease of adaptation that the species generally present to different types of soil.

Given the time limitation of vegetative propagation through woody cuttings, we considered the possibility of its propagation through herbaceous cuttings, which would allow the propagation period of the species to be extended throughout the year.

Propagation by woody cutting

Rhizogenesis or root neoformation is the organogenesis phenomenon most generally involved in vegetative multiplication. When we carried out the first experiments on this technique in 1990, there was no specific bibliography in Spain on the rooting of pomegranate cuttings, taking into account the application of parameters such as temperature, hormonal treatments, and injury. pomegranate tree

Different works carried out by us on pomegranate cuttings have shown that it is possible to improve the rooting of woody cuttings of this species, taking into account a series of factors that influence root formation, such as the application of background heat below the base of the cuttings, the use of plastic films on the soil, the application of IBA as a growth regulator at different concentrations and the production of basal wounds in the cuttings.

How to Grow Pomegranate Trees Gardener’s Path 2023

In this way, it is possible to improve the propagation of some variety of pomegranate that is difficult to root and thus seek alternatives in the use of suitable rootstocks, different from the one commonly used in the cultivation of this species, the sour or border. Woody cuttings are carried out in the winter months, and the rooted cuttings are not ready to be transplanted into definitive soil until the following year’s winter (Melgarejo et al., 1992). Relatively high rooting percentages are obtained with this method of propagation, although these can be overcome using vegetative propagation using herbaceous cuttings. pomegranate tree

The results obtained in different rooting tests are shown below:

Cutting testing different bottom temperatures said, and base wounds From the tests carried out using cuttings 25-30 cm long and with a diameter of 1-2 cm, it is concluded:

a) Hormonal treatments, the production of wounds, or the application of background heat notably improve rooting capacity in some varieties that present difficulties. In general, the species takes root well. In this regard, we have carried out rooting tests with different varieties in “hotbeds” with temperatures controlled by an electronic thermostat.

b) Bottom temperatures of 18 and 22ºC were tested, the latter being more suitable.

c) IBA was used as rooting hormone at doses of 4,000 and 8,000 ppm, immersing the last 2 cm of the base of the cuttings in the hormone solution for 5 seconds. This treatment, with the doses and varieties studied, gave different results. It was impossible to deduce from the test that this hormone improves the rooting of all types of pomegranate. In general, a higher rooting percentage is obtained with the highest dose. pomegranate tree

d) The production of wounds at the base of the cuttings considerably increases callus formation. When the treatment is combined with the application of AIB, the results are optimal (100%) in some varieties.

  1. Cutting in the field using different doses of IBA and basal wounds

In 1997, 15,811 woody cuttings were obtained from the clones in the germplasm bank of the Higher Polytechnic School of Orihuela (Miguel Hernández University). The cuttings had an average length of 30 cm; they were collected on 02/06/1997, they were disinfected, and the planting was carried out on 02/18/1997; the two of 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, and 12,000 ppm of IBA were tested, as well as four incisions in the last two centimeters.

 The apical parts were discarded. The cuttings were planted directly on the ground, with at least two buds outside in all cases, in paired rows, leaving about 15 cm between cuttings, watered by the same dripper pipe and about 20 cm apart within the line; the separation between every two rows of cuttings was 1 m, to facilitate the work of cleaning weeds and cutting control. pomegranate tree

 The control of the rooting of the cuttings was carried out on 7/14/97, and the uprooting was carried out with a tractor equipped with a mouldboard, with bare roots, on 12/23/97. Likewise, the results obtained have been subjected to an analysis of variance followed by a multiple range test (DMS) for rooting, finding significant differences at the 95% confidence level for the different clones.

How to Grow Pomegranate Trees Gardener’s Path 2023

 As conclusions of this study, we can highlight the following: Likewise, the results obtained have been subjected to an analysis of variance followed by a multiple range test (DMS) for rooting, finding significant differences at the 95% confidence level for the different clones. 

As conclusions of this study, we can highlight the following: Likewise, the results obtained have been subjected to an analysis of variance followed by a multiple range test (DMS) for rooting, finding significant differences at the 95% confidence level for the different clones. . As conclusions of this study, we can highlight the following:

1st. The less vigorous clones have a lower percentage of natural rooting. It can be increased by applying IBA at high concentrations, with the best results obtained at 12,000 ppm of IBA (T4) (ME11, ME12, ME14, MC1, SFB1). pomegranate tree

2nd. The production of wounds at the base of the cuttings (T5) originates in most clones with similar or higher rooting percentages than the application of IBA at low concentrations (ME1, ME11, ME14, MC1, SFB1, CRO2).

3rd. That the very vigorous varieties have a very high natural rooting capacity, which is not increased by the application of AIB or by the production of wounds (PDO1 and BA1). The latter have an exceptional aptitude for natural propagation by woody cuttings, with the highest rooting%. pomegranate tree

  1. Cutting in the field using different doses of IBA, basal wounds, and plastic mulch
As a continuation of the studies on the rooting capacity of different pomegranate clones propagated by woody cuttings, a study was carried out in 1998, considering the results obtained the previous year and improving the cultivation technique by using black polyethylene plastic film. A significant saving of water and labor is achieved during the rooting period. A difference in rooting capacity is confirmed due to the mulching technique, and the cost reduction in the production of rooted cuttings is valued, which is estimated at 37%.

Before planting, work was carried out to prepare the land; The drip irrigation network was installed, and, with the help of a tractor, sheets of black linear polyethylene 0.95 m wide and 25 m long were spread. Considering the results of the trial carried out in 1997, in which, in general, the best results were obtained for the IBA concentration of 12,000 ppm and with the production of wounds at the base of the cuttings, it was decided to apply to the cuttings of all clones tested these two treatments.

The cuttings were first subjected to wounds at their base (4 incisions in the last 2 centimeters). Then they were subjected to a hormonal treatment by rapid immersion, for 5 seconds, in an IBA solution. During the test, it was found that the temperature of the air, of the floor protected with plastic, and that of the unprotected floor, are different. Thus, the temperature of the mulched soil was 4-5ºC higher than the temperature of the non-mulched earth, and the latter was 2ºC higher than that of the air.

This increase in temperature during the months in which rooting takes place allows an optimal temperature level to be obtained in the soil without energy cost, which translates into an increase in rooting. The average price of the planted cuttings was €0.26/unit, while that of rooted cuttings was €0.29/unit. The average rooting percentage was 91.62%. The vegetative development of the traditional plants was excellent, reaching an average height of more than 86 cm, which makes them more suitable for subsequent transplantation to the standard ground.

The conclusions obtained from the described study are:

1st. Rooting has been very high in all cuttings, highlighting clones ME12, CRO2, and PTO8, which reach 100%. The clones with the lowest rooting percentage are the weakest, such as ME1 and ME14, which is attributed to the fact that their cuttings contained fewer reserves; many of these pegs were less than 5 mm in diameter.

2nd. Mulching the soil with 60-gauge black plastic increases soil temperature, favoring the rooting of the cuttings and excellent vegetative development. pomegranate tree

3rd.- The use of mulch and the favorable conditions of temperature and humidity that are generated as a consequence of it in the rooting zone can replace the effect of IBA, as observed in clone VA2, for which IBA 12,000 ppm does not improve the rooting percentage.

4th.- Carrying out a comparison of means using the Student test for the rooting of the clones of this trial, with the one carried out in 1997 (without padding), it is obtained that, at 99% confidence, the rooting is much higher in 1998, attributing this increase to the quilting technique used this year.

5th.- Mulching, increasing the percentage of rooting, allows significant water and labor savings to be obtained. These savings in water and labor combined, together with the savings produced as a result of the increase in rooting, can be valued at €0.17/cutting, representing a reduction in costs of 37% compared to the technique without padding. pomegranate tree

Propagation by herbaceous cutting

With this new technique, which had not been used before in pomegranate together with propagation using woody cuttings, the following are achieved


– New plants can be obtained throughout the year.

– Use small amounts of plant material.

– The highest rooting percentages are obtained. pomegranate tree

– A large amount of plant can be obtained in a relatively small physical space and in a minimum time.

– The production of the plant in a short space of time and throughout the year, keeping the mother plants in a greenhouse, allows a large number of cuttings to be obtained from the same mother plant, with a notable reduction

How to Grow Pomegranate Trees Gardener’s Path 2023

in the cost of the cuttings and the plants finally obtained.

– The continuous production of plants allows plants to be available at the desired time and reduce the amortization costs of the

equipment used. As disadvantages of the system, we can indicate the following:

– It requires a greenhouse with a misting system in the propagation area (in our case, micro sprinkling was used). pomegranate tree

– It requires heated beds and automatic systems for temperature and humidity control. In this work, herbaceous cuttings have studied vegetative propagation and different factors that influence it, such as the application of growth regulators (IBA), different types of cuttings, substrates, etc.

 For the tests, herbaceous branches of about 25 cm in length, obtaining cuttings of about 6 cm in height, classified as apical, basal, and middle; Before planting, the cuttings were treated with IBA by immersion for 5 seconds in a hydroalcoholic solution, testing six doses (0, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000, 8,000 and 10,000 ppm), three types of cuttings (apical, middle and basal) and two different substrates: 

Peat (2/3) + perlite (1/3) and peat (2/3) + vermiculite (1/3). Each of the treatments consisted of 20 cuttings. The cutting was carried out in the indicated substrates, establishing the bottom temperature of the hotbeds at 25ºC; once rooted, they were transplanted to trays of polyethylene alveoli, moving after three days to a shade house where they spent an acclimatization period of about 15 days before being transplanted to soil. 

The statistical study consisted of an analysis of variance and a DMS multiple range test at a confidence level of 95%. They were moved after three days to a shade house, where they spent an acclimatization period of about 15 days before being transplanted to the ground. 

The statistical study consisted of an analysis of variance and a DMS multiple range test at a confidence level of 95%.moving after three days to a shade house where they spent an acclimatization period of about 15 days before being transplanted to the ground. The statistical study consisted of an analysis of variance and a DMS multiple range test at a confidence level of 95%.

As conclusions of the study of the cultivation of the pomegranate,

1st. There are no significant differences between the clones studied. pomegranate tree

2nd. The application of IBA does not influence the percentage of rooted plants. Still, it affects the quality of the root system and the days necessary for rooting, with the best results obtained with a dose of 10,000 ppm of IBA.

3rd. Apical cuttings are poorly suited for herbaceous propagation.

4th. No differences were observed between the substrates used.

5th. Herbaceous cutting is a profitable alternative to woody cutting. Finally, from the studies carried out, it is concluded that: pomegranate tree

1st. Herbaceous cuttings are economically more interesting for the production of pomegranate plants.

2nd. The time needed to obtain a marketable plant with herbaceous cutting is one month compared to one year for woody cutting.

3rd. Herbaceous cutting is more profitable than woody cutting with plastic film, which is more profitable than traditional woody cutting.

Pomegranates as a functional food

As a simple definition of functional foods, the following is generalized: “Foods which are consumed as part of a normal diet and contain biologically active components, which offer health benefits and reduce the risk of suffering diseases.” They include specific minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, or dietary fiber, foods to which biologically active substances have been added, such as phytochemicals or other antioxidants, and probiotics, which have live cultures of beneficial microorganisms.

The health bomb grenade

According to the above and the various studies carried out in the last 20 years on the chemical composition of the pomegranate and, more recently, its effects on health, we can consider the pomegranate as a functional food or as indicated in a video from the USA “a health bomb.

Given the objective of this work, we will briefly mention some of the compounds that pomegranate has. Regarding these compounds, we already drew attention in 1992, considering that the dissemination of the content of certain substances in the pomegranate was a powerful tool not only to increase the consumption of this fruit and obtain more excellent added value for farmers but also for the benefits that its consumption presents for human health (Melgarejo & Martínez, 1992).

Both this work and those that have subsequently been published, especially in recent years, refer to the content of the pomegranate in different compounds or groups.

We can assure you that the pomegranate is a fleshy berry that generally contains eight carpels in which the seeds (edible portion) are found, these representing a percentage between 58 and 75% depending on the varieties; the carpel membranes and the rind representing 25-42% of the weight of the fruit. The woody portion of the seeds varies between 5 and 15%. pomegranate tree

The whole fruit has approximately 80% water. The seeds, of woody consistency with fleshy or pulpy testa, prismatic in shape, without albumen, straight embryo, and cotyledons rolled up one with the other, pink, maroon, or white, are very juicy. The fact that we usually eat the whole seeds (with the woody part) constitutes a vital differential aspect concerning other fruits in which we do not eat the seeds.

pomegranate anthocyanins

How to Grow Pomegranate Trees Gardener’s Path 2023

Anthocyanins are considered responsible for the red color of pomegranates and their seeds, a critical quality attribute. The red hue depends on the concentration of anthocyanins that they contain and the type of anthocyanin. Thus, delphinidin derivatives are responsible for the blue and violet, while pelargonidin is related to the orange-red color (Harborne, 1982).

In pomegranate, six anthocyanins have been identified as responsible for the color of pomegranate juice: pomegranate tree

delphinidin 3-glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside; cyanidin 3-glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside and pelargonidin 3-glucoside and 3,5-diglucoside (Du et al.,1975).

In a study on these compounds (Melgarejo et al., 1998), the quantitative and qualitative identification of the anthocyanin content in the pomegranate juice of 3 clones was carried out: ME16, VA1, and BA1, grown under homogeneous conditions; in addition to studying their evolution throughout the maturation process. 

Changes in total anthocyanin content during the last eight weeks of fruit development were studied, from immature to commercially mature fruit. Total anthocyanins are around 160 mg/L of juice in clone VA1, a value close to 120 mg/L in clone ME16, and 35 mg of anthocyanins per liter of fluid in clone BA1. These values ​​​​are in the same range as those of others. 

Pomegranate clones, 50-267 mg/kg of fresh weight of arils (whole seeds) for the “Mollar” cultivar (Gil et al., 1995a; Artés et al., 1998), and 6-120 mg/L of juice in Tunisian pomegranates (Gil et al., 1995b). The presence of these phenolic compounds lies in their antioxidant action (they protect against free radicals, delaying the aging process of cells), an aspect that has been studied extensively in recent years in many fruits, including pomegranate.

The antioxidant capacity of pomegranate juice is three times higher than that of red wine and green tea (Gil et al., 2000). These compounds can also be used as natural colorants, adding them to other functional foods.

Pomegranate fatty acids

The grenade is a fruit rich in seeds, with the percentage of these oscillating in a range that varies between 58-75% concerning the rest of the fruit and, of this percentage, between 5% and 15% corresponds to the woody part of the same. . The whole seeds have between 4.92-7.66% fat, containing essential FA: linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3) and mostly polyunsaturated FA.

 Studies carried out on the content of seeds, referring only to the woody part, give an average range of 37-143 g/kg of fruit (Melgarejo et al., 1995), and some cultivars are rich in lipids, varying between 140-270 g /kg of dry matter (El-Shaarawy & Nahapetian, 1983; El-Nemr et al., 1990; Melgarejo & Martínez, 1992). This fat content and its fatty acid composition is a quality parameter for the consumer, especially the ratio of saturated fatty acids/to unsaturated fatty acids. 

Likewise, the fat composition of fruits and vegetables, in general, has attracted great interest in recent years, especially for its essential fatty acids (linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic) and its composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

It is because they play a vital role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and some other heart problems since polyunsaturated fatty acids considerably reduce HDL-cholesterol levels (Grande, 1988; De Hoya & Mata, 1989). . Studies carried out on six cultivars of pomegranate from the Mediterranean area indicate that 30-35% of the fatty acids present in pomegranate are saturated, 25-37% 

Monounsaturated, 25-39% unsaturated, 1-10% polyunsaturated, and approximately 67.6% correspond to punic acids (Melgarejo et al., 1995). More recently (Melgarejo et al., 2001) have published the fat and fatty acid composition of 5 pomegranate varieties studied during the 1995 and 1996 seasons, all of them grown under homogeneous conditions:2 mid-season sweets (ME16 and MA2), one early sweet (VA1), one bittersweet (PTO8) and one sour (BA1).

 From this study, it was obtained that the indicated varieties contained between 4.63 and 6.92% of saturated FA, 4.7 to 6.9% of monounsaturated FA, 4.98 to 8.54% of unsaturated FA, and 66.76 to 79.29% of triunsaturated FA; For this group of varieties, the unsaturated FA varied between 80.41 and 91.03%, with punic acid1 (C18:3) between 66.76 and 79.29%.

1: Punic acid C18:3 with a double bond in positions 9, 11, and 13 without determining the geometric configuration.

Pomegranate crude fiber (CF) pomegranate tree

Spanish pomegranates have FB content that varies between 5 and 22%, considering that those with a range of less than 9% are classified as “soft pine nuts,” easily chewable.

Let us consider that the daily fiber intake of 30-60 g is adequate for an adult, assuming a pomegranate weighing 300 g and its seed yield is 60%. The seeds will weigh 180 g, so if they have a 22.41 % crude fiber, we can deduce that eating a daily pomegranate can cover the figure of 40.3 g/day of fiber.

The problem in Western societies concerning fiber is that when they feed on more refined products every day, the necessary intake is not reached on many occasions, which is why problems such as colon cancer, rectal cancer, constipation, and obesity. Thus, it is described in the literature that the daily intake of about 50 g of fiber produces an increase in feces of up to 250 g compared to an individual from Western society who usually emits 80 to 150 g/day due to the increased water.

Retention, which makes the stool more fluid, so that the toxic products that appear in the seat are more diluted (phytotoxins, viruses, derivatives of bile acids, and other possible carcinogens); Many studies have shown that the tension of the walls of the colon decreases, which makes the pain disappear in subjects with irritable bowels and makes defecation easier when the amount of fiber in the diet increases. It should also be added that the quality of pomegranate seeds (an edible portion of the fruit) is determined by different parameters, mainly color, size, SS/A ratio, non-taste pleasantness, and hardness pomegranate tree. In a study carried out in this regard (Melgarejo et al., 1998), the hardness, the friendliness of the taste, and the unpleasantness of the seeds were studied. These characteristics are decisive since the roots of some varieties have such a high hardness that they are inedible, so they cannot be used for marketing fresh,

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pomegranate tannins

They are astringent substances found in the seed, the fruit’s pericarp, and the pomegranate’s bark. (“Cortex Fructus Granati”). Its pharmacological interest lies in its applications against diarrhea for being astringent. In an industrial shelling process, in addition to the juice, the fruit’s rind would be obtained, which, rich in tannins, could be used as a natural source of these substances.

Other substances in pomegranate

The latest scientific and medical research indicates that pomegranate juice has substances with antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activity for cholesterol control and prevention of cardiovascular problems, etc., although some are very recent.

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