Best gypsophila How to grow Planting and Growing Guide 2023

Best gypsophila How to grow Planting and Growing Guide 2023

Gypsophila paniculata began in Spain at the end of the 1980s as a continuation and improvement of traditional annual cycle seed varieties. It is currently used as a cut flower, although most of the time it participates in floral bouquets as an ornamental green, providing volume and luminosity to the floral ensemble.

Popularly known as Paniculata, Bridal veil, white foam, or Gisófila, this plant belongs to the Caryophyllaceae family and is native to Europe and Central Asia. The flowers of Gypsophila paniculata can be both single and double depending on the variety and although new colors have entered the scene, the white ones are still the most popular by far.

In cultivation, it behaves like a perennial plant that reaches heights that vary between half and a little over a meter depending on the variety. It grows in a highly branched way and supports exposure to full sun well in countries with warm climates.

The flowers of Gypsophila paniculate can be both single and double depending on the variety. There are several colors the most popular by far the white ones. One of its most striking ornamental characteristics is that it develops into large masses of very small flowers in such a way that many describe it as a ‘wedding veil’ or ‘white foam.

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1. GENERALITIES

Gypsophila is another of the genera of ornamental plants highly appreciated as cut flowers. They reach their full development after three years of cultivation, although before they offer their flowers. Within this genus, we can find species with pink or white flowers.

According to connoisseurs, these plants have their origin in the mountains of Europe and Asia. Since these plants spread out considerably, they are sometimes too large for small spaces, although placed high on a wall they grow hanging, giving a very decorative effect.

Their life is long and they produce a long-lasting bloom.The ethereal grace displayed by certain species of this genus has long been considered the ideal accompaniment to other more showy and colorful flowers.

Annual and perennial species are cultivated, generally for cut flowers. Annual species, such as Gypsophila elegans, are often planted in gardens flanking other annuals. A mixed border of Gypsophila Elegans and Anchusa capensis, for example, is a sight to behold.

Best gypsophila How to grow Planting and Growing Guide 2023

It is also possible to play with the color variation, combining the “Rosa” and “Carmine” cultivars (pink and carmine flowers). Among the white ones, the best is the “Covent garden”. All of them are sown directly in the position in which they are to flower because the slightest attack on the roots harms the vigor and extension of the plant.

The charm of Gypsophila lies in the rain of small white flowers it produces and, the more corpulent the specimens are, the greater the floral display. These plants are very suitable for rock gardens and walls, but also to form part of beds in which they are combined with other plants, such as Gypsophila paniculata.

The white, multi-flowered classes can reach up to 1 meter in height, thus, for example, the “Plena” and the “Bristol Fairy”, an improved class of the first.Flamingo” produces double pink flowers. The “Pink Star” has very bright colors. The “Pink Veil” does not reach more than 30 cm in height. Lower still is Gypsophila repens, with two types: white-flowered and pink-flowered.

The Gypsophila elegans is an annual plant of 30 to 50 cm, which bears small double white flowers in summer. All of these classes can be sown directly in the garden in March. For the Gypsophila flowers, there are exceptions, between May to August, the majority in June; the lower species, somewhat later.

Gardening

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Gypsophilas do well in calcareous and dry soils, which, however, must not be devoid of nutrients. The plants must be thinned, during their cultivation, so that each of them can develop at least 30 cm in diameter.

They are normally sown in April-May and pricked out in June-July, to be planted in August-September. Gypsophila can be multiplied by seed in favorable climates and sowed in the final position in autumn to promote robust development and early flowering. In other regions, it is born in spring. The soils must be permeable, tolerating those of a calcareous nature quite well.

It prefers to enjoy the abundant sun, although it tolerates some shade in the morning or the afternoon. During cultivation, care should be taken to thin out the seedlings carefully and keep them free of weeds in the early stages. In windy areas, support them with poles or stakes.

2. CLASSIFICATION AND BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

Gypsophila belongs to the Caryophyllaceae family. These plants develop well in full sun in countries with warm climates, preferably in well-drained soils, with adequate porosity and somewhat loamy. Its development and its life are very limited in those areas with a cold and humid climates.

They need deep soils where their roots can grow well and search for nutrients throughout the horizon, it is better that at the beginning of their installation in a field there are no other plants around that can disturb the growth of the roots.

This group of plants is appreciated above all for the value of its flowers, being cultivated for cut flowers. Some of the Gypsophila species most cultivated or used are listed below

Gypsophila altísima Size 1.2×1.2. Flower color: white. Native to southeastern Russia. It was released in 1759. It is one of those little-known species of the genus, suitable for any type of open and sunny place. Contrary to Gypsophila paniculata, its stems are sticky to the touch. The flowers are arranged as an open mass with white flowers, the opening is later than that of Gypsophila paniculata.

Gypsophila oldhamiana Size: 90 x 90 cm. Pink color. Reminds or resembles Gypsophila paniculata“Rosea”., but it has leaves of a truly glaucous color that stands out or combines very well with the pink of its flowers, opening later than that of G. paniculata. They are of great value as garden plants.

Gypsophila paniculata Size 90 x120 cm. White color. Native to Eastern Europe and Siberia, 1759. Produces the well-known masses of minute white-gray stars (flowers), a huge, dense flower formation from which stems are quite difficult to extract. 

Fifty years ago it was used as a combination with “carnations” and “sweet peas” in bases. Gertrude Jekyll’s advice is still followed today about the opportune planting of this species behind summer bulbs, oriental plants, etc. since this species can occupy the empty spaces that remain in the garden with the arrival of summer.

Bristol Fairy 1928 Pure white color, double flowering. short-lived The so-called “Bodger” or “Compacta Plena” normally ensures good flowering. They are mainly used as cut flowers or for making dried flowers.

Flamingo 1938 Pale pink color, also double flowering. Delicate handling. Within the group, the dwarf “Pink Star” is more confident in its flowering. It is also mainly used for cutting or for dried flowers.

Rosy Veil Its original name is German “Rosenschleier”. It is a hybrid between Gypsophila paniculata and Gypsophila repens1933. deserves the particular name “Baby’s Breath” (baby’s breath).

 Its flowers resemble a cloud of light pink flowers, ideal for gardens with rockeries or for borders. The last variety is “Rosa Schoenheit” (Pretty Rose), rather tall in size and with pretty colored flowers. It grows on normal soils, is long-lived, and is a dwarf form of Gypsophila paniculata.

Gypsophila elegans You do not need a common name as an introduction. It produces innumerable tiny white or pink flowers, in light clusters, which are a distinguishing feature of many curbs. With its large, brilliant inflorescences, it is unrivaled as a cut flower. It is also sown in autumn or spring. It is also normally used with flowers for dried bouquets.

Gypsophila cerastioides It is distinguished from the others by its non-creeping bearing, since, on the contrary, it forms rounded but low clumps with foliage adorned by its very pale pink flowers.

Gypsophila Dubai is one of the most beautiful creeping plants, in which the bluish-gray foliage and the spectacular bright pink bloom form a magnificent ensemble.

Gypsophila fratensis is very similar to the previous one, as is Gypsophila “Dorothy teacher”, which is still a little larger, as it reaches 10 cm.

Gypsophila repens She and her de Ella alba and monstrous forms are very creepy.

Gypsophila muralis This compact Gypsophilais a relatively recent introduction to the indoor/outdoor plant market. Coming from Danish growers, this species comes to join the existing varieties. At 21 cm tall, Gypsophila muralis is a much more useful plant for hanging baskets and window boxes than other Gypsophila species. rather large and creeping. 

Best gypsophila How to grow Planting and Growing Guide 2023

Its narrow and long leaves (up to 2 cm) wrap the stems and make its multiple white and pink flowers stand out, which appear in late summer and autumn (between July and September). This annual plant, native to Europe, the Caucasus, and Siberia, should be purchased as an established plant, as its seeds are difficult to find. 

Best gypsophila How to grow Planting and Growing Guide 2023

It flowers better and lasts longer if placed in a sunny spot. Irrigation must be abundant, waiting for the surface of the substrate to begin to dry before doing it again; use soft water, since it does not tolerate hard water well. Does not need additional moisture. If it is planted on new land, it needs to be fertilized after 6-8 weeks; thereafter, fertilize it every ten days with a suitable fertilizer.

 Since it is an annual plant, it is not necessary to transplant it; grow it in a permeable loam-based substrate (otherwise horticulturists’ sand can be added). If you can find such plants, use Gypsophila muralis together with other summer or summer-flowering annuals, in pastel pinks, pale mauve ( Pelargonium ), and with the blues of nigella, or as a contrast plant to the many popular Argyranthemum varieties.

These are some of the most important varieties or species, but we must not forget that researchers have sometimes achieved incredible things such as interspecific hybrids that, naturally, cannot be achieved by crossing two different species. Thus, the in vitro cross between Gypsophila paniculata L “Red Sea” and Gypsophila Mangini has been achieved, an incompatible cross in nature (Kishi et al., 1994).

3. GYPSOPHILA PANICULATA

3.1. Generalities.

It is a very useful plant to combine with Papaver orientale (a poppy), lungworts, and others that are disheveled after flowering; its foam of tiny flowers is just what is needed to mask bare ground and dead leaves. The most striking variety is “Bristol Fairy”, double and white, which is usually grafted on the rootstock of the type species.

Lots of suns and good drainage are essential; they prefer soils where lime is present.Gypsophila paniculata is a perennial species of Gypsophila, widely cultivated for the market.The plant is highly branched, it produces a large number of small flowers during the months of June-August, which are grouped in loose panicles. Simple and double forms are cultivated. From the double forms, a special election has been obtained, called Snow White, which can be developed from seed.

Bristol Fairy. 1928. Pure white, it propagates vegetatively, and it is bearer during June – September of large double flowers, which are extremely decorative. short-lived The so-called “Bodger” or “Compacta Plena” normally ensures good flowering. They are mainly used as cut flowers or for making dried flowers.

“Flamingos”. 1938. Pale pink color, also double flowering. Delicate handling. Within the group, the dwarf “Pink Star” is more confident in its flowering. It is also mainly used for cutting or for dried flowers. Flamingo blooms freely in normal summers and is widely sold, but it has a weak development and is easily affected by adverse weather conditions.

3.2. Spread.

The varieties of plants that can be originated at the expense of seeds are cultivated, as in the case of the other perennial plants, of the resistant type.

The plants are arranged in their final places, spaced about 90 cm apart.The Bristol Fairy variety can be propagated from cuttings or by grafting. Similar fragments of young shoots are used in each method.

Cuttings of about 7.5 centimeters in length are introduced in the sand, separated from each other between 5-6.25 centimeters, sometimes in a closed drawer and other circumstances under propagation at a constant humidity, in the period between June and September. In other cases, cuttings are taken during April, from plants that have spent the winter in a cold greenhouse.

The use of root-stimulating hormone powder can be an effective aid.In the grafts, small pieces of roots that are two years old, in the form of simple flowers Gypsophila paniculata, are used as rootstock., and on these young shoots of 2.5 centimeters in length from the Bristol Fairy or Flamingo, varieties are grafted. 

They are fastened with grafting mud or bitumen, rooting them in the sand, and placed in a drawer. The most suitable time to do it is at the beginning of spring when the escutcheon or bark graft is practiced. It can be done in late winter or early spring, using greenhouse-grown rootstocks.

Grafted plants can be placed in a cold room for grafting to heal when grafting has been done in summer and fall.Finally, it can also be propagated from in vitro cultures using stem tip explants. In this sense, research is being carried out to define a good in vitro propagation method for its possible use at a commercial level, from explants of stem tips (Ahroni et al, 1997), or explants of leaves (Zuker et al, 1997 ). ).

Finally, the effect of night temperatures, light support during flowering, and the length of days on experimental cultures of Gypsophila paniculata is also being investigated. Although there are still not very abundant data, what does seem clear is that the increase in day length during flowering expansion results in reduced yields and quality, as well as smaller plants. normal (in the varieties Bristol Fairy and Bridal Veil) (Hicklento et al, 1993).

3. Crop

Gypsophila thrives on plain, well-drained soils that are not deficient in lime. Perennial species provide very widespread plants, so they require spacings that are not less than 90 centimeters. Under such conditions, a larger spacing may be more suitable in many cases.

Cuttings are often necessary, particularly for the Flamingo variety.

3.4. commercialization

The branched stems, with a good stem length, are cut at the moment the flowers open. They are gathered in bunches and packed for the market in large flower trunks.

The gypsophila is often dyed carnation red or purple and can also be dried for use in winter.

3.5. Plagues and diseases.

One of the pathogens that affect Gypsophilas is the so-called crown rot, which attacks above all the Gypsophila peninsula “Baby’s breath”. The causal agent has been described as Phytophthoraspp. The first observable symptoms are a wilting of the leaves, a decrease in the size or development of the stems, and/or the presence of chlorotic leaves. 

Later a soft, watery formation appears in the tissues of the crown. The disease develops under the influence of moderate to high temperatures (25 to 30 ºC) and high percentages of humidity. The decay of the crown region occurs within 2 to 3 days after the initial infection of the pathogen. 

Losses can reach up to 30% of the crop, during the first month after transplanting. The control for this disease is as follows: the fungistatic 5-ethoxy – 3 (trichloromethyl) – 1,2,4 – thiadiazole (Etazol 30 W) is used. This product offers good control of crops under controlled conditions.

The symptoms of this disease have been described and cited by different authors, however, the causal agent has been different species of Phytophthora. Thus, in some cases, Phytophthora parasitica Dast has been described (Engelhard, 1974; Engelhard, 1973; Hagiwara, 1982), while in others the causal agent identified was Phytophthora crypto gear Peth (Krober, 1973).

In 1979 the symptoms of Pythium aphanidermatum on Gypsophila paniculata in commercial crops in Israel were cited and described. Likewise, the most important methods for its control were detailed (Vigodsky-Haas et al, 1979).

Another important disease that affects this crop of Gypsophilia paniculata is caused by some isolated Erwinia herbicola (Miller et al, 1981).

The pathogen produces root and crown galls (Cooksey, 1986). This bacterial disease has been so extensively investigated that a specific pathovar has been identified on commercial crops of Gypsophila paniculata. Said pathovar is Erwinia herbicola pv gypsophilae .

Researchers strive to detect the early presence of this bacterium in mother plants from which cuttings are taken for commercial multiplication. The most used technique is PCR with which this objective is achieved to detect diseased mother plants (Manuliset al, 1998). Likewise, a DNA plasmid has been identified to detect the presence of the bacterium on mother plants (Manulis et al, 1991). 

The bacterium has been cloned and genetically characterized (Clark et al, 1993). This bacterium, once the infection has started, spreads through the cuttings very quickly, in a matter of 2 days (Gafni et al., nineteen ninety-five). 

The latest discoveries on the pathogenicity of this bacterium indicate that its level or severity is closely linked to the biosynthesis or not of indole-3-acetic acid, identified from the bacterium. 

The discovery of molecular markers for this biosynthesis has allowed early detection of the presence of the disease. The inoculated bacterial isolates that showed the presence of these chemical compounds were the ones that developed symptoms on the tested plants (Manulis et al, 1991).

Best gypsophila How to grow Planting and Growing Guide 2023

Ulrychova et al., 1983, reported the presence of mycoplasma in Gypsophila paniculata cultures. Among the pests, Amauromyza flavifrons have been cited on crops of gypsophila. This pest behaves like leaf miners (Alford, 1991).

Attacks by nematodes such as Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev have also been cited, a major pest of a large number of herbaceous and bulbous plants, of which there are numerous races or strains with different pathogenicity or level of aggressiveness on the host (Alford, 1991).

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