13 How to Grow Fragrant Freesia Flowers Description, Species, Facts 2022
Freesias are one of the world’s most popular cut flowers. They are loved for their pure colors, long vase life and sweet perfume. … The flowers may be single or double and are available in many beautiful colors including white, cream, yellow, orange, red, pink, mauve, lavender and purple.
Freesia is a genus of herbaceous perennial flowering plants in the family Iridaceae, first described as a genus in 1866 by Christian Friedrich Ecklon and named after the German botanist and medical practitioner, Friedrich Freese.
- Order: Asparagales
- Family: Iridaceae
- Genus: Freesia; Eckl. ex Klatt
- Kingdom: Plantae
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Freesia flower – tips for care and cultivation. Freesia – planting and care, cultivation in the open air.
Description: This group consists of 19 elegant perennial deciduous bulbs. It belongs to the lily family, and in spring, they form very good-smelling flowers. Freesias are great for growing on curbs and containers in the garden and indoors. They reach a height of 30 to 45 cm.
- Homeland: South America.
- Foliage: it is shaped like a sword. In the spring, the long, slender stems sprout over the leaves to produce exquisite tubular flowers that reach 5 cm in diameter.
Freesia – care
Temperature range: These flowers can be grown in the garden throughout the year. The most important thing is that the temperature does not drop below -6 ° C, summer is dry, and winter is cool and humid. Hot and humid summers are not suitable for these plants, and the flower will not grow well in such a climate. Freesia, which is easy to grow, grows well at daytime temperatures of 15-21 ° C and at night temperatures of 10-15 ° C. If the climate in your region is warm, freesias will be dormant in the summer. In areas where the summer is cool and humid, the bulbs should be dug up and stored at 25-30 ° C for at least three months.
Lighting: full of sun. Consider good lighting when growing indoors. This often becomes a problem, and the flower does not grow as we would like.
Soil Type: Freesia, which is easy to care for, requires well-drained sandy soil.
Watering: During intensive growth and flowering, watering should be regular. The most important thing is that you don’t overwater the plant.
Fertilizers – during active growth, you can make the top dressing.
Reproduction: you can detach the branches and plant them. Freesia also reproduces by planting seeds. They should be planted in spring or early summer in well-sifted pots. The seeds do not need to be buried deep. Store the pots in a warm place, and you can cover them with glass until the first sprouts appear.
Freesia was photographed during flowering.
Bloom: Sweet-smelling flowers come in different shades like gold, orange, pink, white, purple, and blue. In some species, the flowers are double toned, and there are also varieties whose flowers are double. After cutting, they do not wilt for a week.
Freesia: how to plant?
If you live in the southern region, then plant bulbs in the fall, and if you live in the northern region – in the spring. The sowing depth should be about 12 cm, and the distance between the plants should be about 3-5 cm. They will begin to flower 10 to 12 weeks after planting. Freesia, planted in pots, should be planted to a depth of 3 cm. 6 to 8 bulbs can be planted in a 15 cm pot.
Application: used for planting in beds and containers. White Freesia is very popular with many gardeners and looks great in borders. Most species are precious as cut flowers.
Additionally: these flowers tend to grow, so you can place them close to each other and attach them to some kind of support. After flowering, do not touch the plant’s foliage and store the flower in a sunny place and water. Thus, the foliage accumulates the necessary nutrients for the plant to flourish abundantly and effectively next year. Only remove the foliage when it turns yellow and wilts. If you are growing bulbs at home, place the pot in a cool room to bloom longer.
Terry Freesia – Double Freesia
This species forms flowers of various shades, they are often two-coloured, and their diameter reaches about 7 cm. Terry freesia grows in height from 45 to 60 cm. It is used mainly for cuttings.
Hybrid Freesia – Hybrid Freesia
It is a hardy variety that grows well in dry climates. The Freesia hybrid has different shades of colours, including purple, pink, red, and white.
Freesia is a versatile plant. For its cultivation, open areas in the garden and home conditions are suitable. This flower is a perennial culture; therefore, a place should be selected where a tropical inhabitant feels comfortable for its cultivation. How to plant freesia and care for it, read the article.
General information about the flower.
Freesia is considered an elegant and graceful garden culture. The flower has a subtle and delicate scent used in the perfume industry. The delicious aroma creates beautiful compositions. A scientist from Germany, Friedrich Frieze, discovered the flower for Europe, hence the name. More often than others, a hybrid form of the plant is found in gardens. Planting freesia and caring for it requires adherence to specific rules, as African beauty is a capricious culture.
Freesia is a compact herb that is one meter tall. The stem is branched, the leaves are thin, their colour is dark green, the length is 15-20 cm, the width is from one to one and a half centimetres. Propagated by Bulbs that are renewed every year: last year they go out, the new ones replace them. The peduncle is refined, racemose inflorescences are formed on it. They contain funnel-shaped buds. They are white, cream, pink, blue, yellow, lilac, orange, red.
There are exciting varieties with petals of a combined colour. Among florists, these flowers are highly prized. They are often used in wedding bouquets. It is no coincidence that this flower symbolizes youth, beauty, serenity and confidence. Freesia comes in many varieties, with single and double flowers. In the first variety, the petals are arranged in one row, in the second – in several. The flowering period of freesia is long. It begins in August and ends before the onset of frosts.
It is a hybrid form of a flower with 45-60 cm height. It is used mainly in cut form. The cultivation of freesia is also possible in pots. Shoots form six months after sowing. The plant can flower for another 10 days in a vase after being cut and placed in water. At the same time, the aroma is not lost. It is recommended to cut the stems when two or more flowers open. The tubers are constantly updated. After flowering, development stops. Part of the plant above the ground dies. After that, the preparation of terry freesia for planting and care begins. The procedure is the same as for other crop varieties. The bulbs are processed first and then germinated to sprout. Only then are they planted in the ground.
It is better to plant the flower in a greenhouse, greenhouse or house. Under these conditions, the plant blooms even in winter. But this does not always happen. Often, even experienced flower growers cannot wait for a beautiful plant to bloom in their garden, even though they appreciate and appreciate it. But for distillation in pots or pots, there are no problems. If freesia is planted in September, it will bloom in early spring. The main characteristic of this culture is that for any plant, indoor or garden, an annual transplant is needed.
Preparing the bulbs
To plant freesia and care for it in the future, you need to prepare and germinate the planting material. So that the bulbs planted in the ground in a permanent place do not die, they must first be grown at home in boxes or containers with fertile soil. For this, you need:
- Choose the most robust bulbs. Make a potassium permanganate solution and let them soak for two to three hours. Disinfection is necessary to protect the planting material from fungi.
- Then small boxes with holes in the bottom are prepared and filled with light and nutritious soil. A composition of turf, peat and coarse sand soil is suitable. The soil can be explicitly purchased because the bottom of the box is covered with a small layer of soil, about two centimetres thick. The bulbs are placed in it and one centimetre sprinkled with soil.
- Bulb boxes should be placed in a warm, draft-free place. They will sprout quickly, and the main thing is to provide daily watering. When the sprouts appear, the humidity should be even more abundant. Excess fluid will escape through the holes. It is essential to maintain a high temperature in the room. During the day, it should be within 18 ° C, at night – 14.
Planting bulbs in the ground
The soil in the selected area in the garden must be moisture-permeable and fertile. Freesia responds well, especially during the flowering period, to the introduction of rotten humus, compost, and mineral fertilizers. The soil composition must be neutral, with a good drainage layer.
Planting and caring for freesia should be done when the plants in the boxes grow up to 10 cm tall, the weather sets, and the air and soil warm. Sprouted bulbs are planted three to five centimetres later. If they are large, the planting depth should be 8-10 cm; if they are small – four to six. Planting freesia in the spring is done in light areas with partial shade. It will protect the delicate petals from the sun. This season falls at the end of May when the threat of frost has passed.
After planting freesia in the open ground, water the plants abundantly and cover the soil with peat. To retain moisture in the soil, the layer must be thick. 13-20 o C is considered the optimum temperature for flower growth. If it falls sharply, the peduncles will be short; if it rises, intensive development of the leaves begins, no shoots are formed.
Freesia – cultivation and care in the open field.
The flower is so beautiful that even its whimsical nature does not stop gardeners. They enjoy growing it. To maintain the moisture balance in the soil, its surface must be covered with mulch. In addition to peat, the use of steamed straw is recommended. In addition, plants need to weed and loosen to better supply oxygen to the roots. Freesia in the garden blooms enough. But to prolong this pleasure, you must cut the stems by 1/3. It is best done when cutting the flowers. Growing freesia outdoors and caring for it involves watering, feeding, installing supports, protecting against pests, and much more.
Freesia is capricious. Therefore it needs a particular watering regimen. The plant requires a lot of water during growth and flowering, which lasts 45 days. The soil must always be moist. In addition to watering, you should spray the leaves and stems. Procedures should be carried out at night so that the flowers absorb moisture at night. If you do this in the morning, the water will evaporate in the sun; the plants will not get anything. When the flowering period is over, watering should be reduced and ultimately stopped. When growing in the garden, the flower is in the ground until frost.
Growing freesia is impossible without additional nutrition, which is a fertilizer. They should be applied to the ground every 15 days. This plant does not have immunity against soil salinity, so nutritional supplements must be liquid solutions. Dry mixes are not suitable. You can make that dressing yourself. To do this, 35 g of superphosphate are dissolved in a bucket of water or 10 g of potassium salts for the same amount of liquid.
Garden freesia have weak, bent peduncles. So that the wind does not break them, you need to install supports and tie plants to them. To do this, a grid is used. The plants are tied when their height reaches 15-20 cm. Supports help plants maintain an upright position, as their growth requires conditions in which light and air are evenly distributed. It is possible if the stems are not bent, and therefore the bracket is installed. The height of the flowers will increase as they grow. The mesh must be spread out or lifted.
Freesia at home
This flower can be grown as an indoor crop. In this case, under certain conditions, it blooms in winter. If the bulbs are purchased from a specialized store, the storage conditions are unknown. The bulbs must be provided with high humidity and high temperatures to be safe. To do this, you need to wrap the planting material in gauze and put it in a warm place over the water source. The grill is suitable for placing the bulbs. At this time, peduncle placement occurs, so this procedure is essential. These bulbs will bloom in winter.
When to plant freesia? It is best done in the fall. For planting, you need to stock up on deep pots. Their diameter should be 10-12 cm, a soil 20 cm thick is poured, five or six bulbs are planted in a pot to a depth equal to their number. Plants need fertile soil. For this, a mixture of turf soil, peat, humus and sand is prepared in a ratio of 2: 1: 2: 1.
13 How to Grow Fragrant Freesia Flowers Description, Species, Facts 2022
Freesia likes neutral soil with good water permeability. After planting is complete, the bulb pots should be taken out to the balcony. But you can also dig it in the ground in the garden area until the autumn frosts. At the beginning of October, the pots are transferred to a room with an air temperature of 10-12 o C.
To bloom in spring, the bulbs are planted in pots in October, at the end of the month. After planting, they should be placed in a warm room, in which there is always high humidity. When the leaves begin to grow, additional lighting is needed to increase the length of daylight hours. Before flowering, this period is shortened by three hours.
Indoor flower care
When plants are grown at home, especially flowering plants, there are always many problems. What kind of care should be given to freesia at home?
- To keep the leaves in shape, the plants are tied to supports. Of course, you cannot do this. But then the sheets will hang or even break. Such a bush cannot be called attractive.
- The plant should be removed in a dry room with warm air for 30 days. It is essential for reproduction, as this is when new bulbs appear.
- During the growing season, the room temperature should be 20-25 o C. Watering should be reduced. Cut dry peduncles regularly.
- During the rest period, the soil should rarely be moistened.
- The indoor flower prefers bright light, without shadows.
- Freesia is a moisture-loving plant, so it needs a daily spray, especially in the extreme heat of summer. After the procedure, it is unnecessary to put the flower in the sun again; it is better to remove it from the windowsill until the leaves and stems are dry. Otherwise, they will burn.
- It is important to remember that the irrigation regime should permanently be changed based on the development periods. So, during flowering, the plant needs to be watered abundantly, and when germinating the bulbs, on the contrary, their number should be reduced, and the frequency should be observed. If you break the watering regimen, the bulbs will rot.
13 How to Grow Fragrant Freesia Flowers Description, Species, Facts 2022
- Indoor freesia should be fed regularly; this is done during the growth process at 14-day intervals. For this, special additives of mineral origin are used—for example, potassium and phosphorus in three and two grams, respectively, per litre of water. Complex fertilizers can be used.
- A unique mixture is used to increase soil fertility, suitable for bulbous crops. Optionally, it can be prepared at home. For this, leafy soil and humus are taken in equal quantities, a little sand is added, everything is mixed. The bottom of the pot should have drainage holes to drain excess water and prevent the bulbs from rotting.
- Plants need big pots. It is easier to plant freesia in them, and when it grows, take care of it. Immediately after flowering, the plant withers, its part of the soil dries up. After preliminary treatment, the bulbs are dug up and stored until the next season or transplanted into another pot with new soil.
Storing the bulbs
They need to be placed on a rack and left in any warm room to do this. The temperature should be 21-25 ° C, humidity – 80%. If there are no such conditions, a water container is placed under the net. Every month, the bulbs are sorted for the entire storage period, rotten and diseased bulbs are discarded. Thirty days before planting on the garden plot, they should be transferred to a vast room, where the air temperature will be 10-15 o C. Experienced growers use dry peat to store bulbs. If there is slight frost in winter, you can leave them on the ground, but be sure to cover them with fir branches or fallen leaves.
Protection against diseases and pests.
Freesias are often damaged by improper care. Their enemies are mites, aphids, thrips. This crop, which has low immunity, cannot withstand rot, scab and fusarium. On examination, diseased plants should be removed immediately. The bulbs are cleaned and disinfected immediately after digging up for preventive purposes. Before planting in the new season, they must be treated again with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
To prevent aphids and mites from appearing on plants, it is necessary to spray them twice a season with a soapy solution. If rot appears on the leaves, they should be treated with Fundazol. You can use potassium permanganate solution for this.
Freesia, or Freesia, isn’t called the flower of aristocrats for nothing. This culture belongs to the genus of African perennials of the Iris family. The catalogue of this decorative and popular flowering culture includes many species that can be planted both in a garden or greenhouse and for indoor landscaping, growing in a pot or flowerpot.
The average height of an ornamental plant varies between 20-80 cm, but some varieties reach one meter in height. Freesia is characterized by forming a part of the bare and highly branched stem with linear foliage. A prominent and prominent central vein is visible on the leaves, the length of which can be 15-20 cm with a width of one centimetre.
Each plant often has a pair of flowers, but up to five flowers can form, combined into a weakly branched inflorescence on one side. A pronounced aroma characterizes the flowers. , have a narrow funnel shape. Depending on the characteristics of the variety and type, the colouring of the petals can be almost any. Most often, the staining is represented by whitish, cream, yellow, yellow-orange, pink, rose-red, lilac, blue, and violet. As a rule, the flowers have a pharynx with a contrasting primary colouring—tricellular ovaries. The tiny seed capsule is obovate and protects numerous angularly rounded, dark brown seeds.
The best varieties
In our country, highly decorative and relatively unpretentious varieties have gained particular popularity. It can be grown throughout the year, and the flowering time may depend on when the bulb is planted in a flower garden or pot.
View Species characteristics Variety or hybrid form Description of the variety
Armstrong (Freesia Armstrong) Medium-sized species with scarlet, pink or red bell-shaped flowers, collected in panicle inflorescences. The foliage is xiphoid, long. Flowers during May-June “Cardinal” Cultivar did not double, of medium vigour, with three stems of a bulb and ten beautiful dark red flowers.
Hybrid (Freesia hybrida) Tall, highly branched plant with clusters of large, fragrant purple, crimson, yellow, monochromatic, or bicolour flowers. “Dancer” Variety of white flowers with wavy petals. A dozen flowers are gathered in inflorescences, emitting a delicate, light and pleasant aroma.
“Rose Marie” Approximately seven bright crimson flowers are collected on the inflorescence. The underside of the flowers is white with a crimson pattern.
“Pampering” On inferior peduncles, there are inflorescences of seven flowers with wavy red petals with a dark red border.
White or refracted or broken (Freesia refracta) is characterized by a miniature shape, a thin part of the stem, spike-shaped paniculate inflorescences, collected from white or yellowish-orange flowers. “Sunrise” has large snow-white flowers with purple shading.
“Fragrant Yellow flowers, collected in inflorescences, with a characteristic lily of the valley aroma.
In flower and garden stores and flower nurseries, are not only popular, popular varieties and hybrid forms of freesia sold, but also ready-made mixes of varieties called “freesia mix”, which allows planting and growing quite quickly—a whole collection of highly decorative freesias of different shapes, sizes and colours.
How to prepare freesia bulbs for planting (video)
Planting and care technology
Planting freesia is carried out according to the technology of growing ornamental crops. Plant the plant bulbs after preliminary preparation. , assuming a two-hour soak in a weak solution based on potassium permanganate. If the planting material is of high quality and provided in the correct planting conditions, it will be possible to obtain a highly decorative and abundantly flowering planting.
Freesia can be planted in pots between April and July. In this case, flowering occurs in summer and autumn. When planting in autumn, flowering is observed from January to April. The pot should have quality drainage holes.
It can grow several bulbs at once in a pot, placing them with a sharp end. Planting material should be buried about 5-6 cm into the ground, represented by the already prepared nutritious soil mixture. If the pot’s diameter is about 15-17 cm, a freesia mix consisting of five to six bulbs can be grown.
In the garden and the greenhouse.
Thermal preparation of freesia bulbs should be carried out in high humidity and high-temperature conditions. Storage is carried out at a temperature of 10-12 ° C. Therefore, such treatment before sowing through temperature differences helps to stimulate growth processes. Treatment with a solution based on phytosporin or foundation is used for prophylactic purposes for thirty minutes.
When planting garden forms, it is required to calculate the planting depth based on the condition and type of soil. Landing should be deeper on lighter soils. The bulbs should be buried about 11-12 cm in light soil. In medium-heavy soils, the bulbs should be buried 8-10 cm. When planted in heavy soil, the bulbs can be buried no more than 5-6 cm.
Freesias prefer rich compost-based soil with little sand for better drainage. It is important to note that in areas with cold climatic conditions, freesia garden forms are grown in the open ground with the mandatory digging of bulbs for the winter. Hybrid freesias are grown in pots and are also brought indoors before winter.
Rules for flower care
Caring for this decorative crop is pretty straightforward, even for novice growers. It is required to care for the plant by the established technology for growing freesia:
- in winter, the light must be reduced, which is because the plants are in the stage of natural dormancy;
- in summer, the crop needs twelve hours of daylight, which will allow an abundant and long-lasting flowering;
- it is essential to remember that adult plants need to provide the support that freesia needs, especially in the flowering stage;
- systematic and moderate watering measures are carried out only after the upper layer of the soil dries up;
- for irrigation, it is recommended to use sedimented and sufficiently warm water without greater hardness and excess chlorine content;
- when growing freesia, the plant should provide higher levels of air humidity, using fairly frequent spraying;
- the optimal is the winter placement of the plant in a cool place, which can be used as a glazed loggia or a relatively warm balcony;
- Mineral dressings are necessary until the foliage dries, regularly twice a month.
After flowering, the stem and foliage are pruned. The bulb that is left to ripen must be watered for a month and a half, after which it is dug up, disinfected and dried, and then stored until planting in a cool place.
Getting ready for winter
In most regions of our country, garden freesia cannot overwinter in open ground. Therefore, an ornamental plant must provide a dormant period with a sufficiently high-temperature regime. After flowering and foliage yellowing, freesia bulbs should be dug up and thoroughly dried in a warm, dry and sufficiently ventilated room.
When drying the bulbs, the temperature regime should be about 23-25 ° C. As a general rule, the drying period is one and a half weeks, after which the freesia bulbs should be sorted, cleaned and stored. Carefully in winter. In the winter storage stage, it is necessary to maintain the humidity of the air at a level of 70-75%.
To ensure the safety of planting material, containers filled with water should be installed in storage. It is better to buy new planting material for garden freesia in the autumn period since the spring purchase is most often associated with the risk of acquiring insufficient quality or poorly stored bulbs.
How to plant freesia in open ground (video)
The self-propagation of ornamental crops is carried out by seed or daughter bulbs. Seed reproduction is carried out according to the following technology:
- sowing of pretreated seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate should be carried out from April to May in special sowing containers filled with a soil substrate or a mixture based on grass and leafy soil;
- in the presence of the most favourable conditions, the first shoots appear about a month after sowing;
- for young plants to grow stronger, it is necessary to provide the decorative crop at the initial stage of development with high-quality lighting, regular watering, weeding and fertilizing with fertilizers with a composition that includes potassium and phosphorus three times a month;
It is necessary to immerse the seedlings in a permanent place after reaching a standard height and forming a robust root system.
Reproduction of freesia using daughter bulbs is the most comfortable and straightforward way. Tuberculosis can be safely stored with adult bulbs in sandboxes until March, after which the planting material is planted in a permanent place in April or May. Emerging seedlings will require frequent hilling and watering.
Diseases and pests
In garden conditions, freesia is often affected by aphids, spider mites and thrips, upon detection of which both folk remedies and modern insecticides are used. Freesia can also be affected by fusarium, various rots, and scabs.
Freesia is a royal decoration of almost any flower arrangement. This ornamental plant is considered a true aristocrat in modern floristry, highly valued for its elegant forms and delicate and delightful aroma. Ornamental culture is no less prevalent in landscape design, where in recent years, it has been used more and more frequently.
In modern floristry, hybrid freesia is widely used, characterized by various petal shades and inflorescence colouring. Freesia is an excellent option for decorating wedding bouquets. This popular decorative species not only has a strong flower stalk and decorative foliage, but the flowers keep perfectly for about two weeks. Freesias are successfully combined with orchids, calla lilies and roses. A wide range of colours and varieties of decorative freesia is available regardless of the season.
Most often in landscape design, freesias are used to decorate mixing borders and to aromatic and spicy plants, which can be represented by purse, thyme, lavender or rosemary. Growing freesia clumps in areas devoid of the adverse effects of drafts and gusty winds is very popular when decorating lawns. Among other things, ornamental culture has proven its worth when grown in pots and patios. In recent years freesia has been increasingly used to decorate rock gardens and rock gardens.
Types and varieties of freesia (video)
The main reasons for the popularity and demand of freesia are the availability of planting material, relative simplicity, excellent external decorative data of the plant, and a stable and delightful aroma. The cultivation is perfect for indoor floriculture and gardening of individual plots and thematic decorative compositions.
The cultivation of freesia in indoor floriculture is carried out to obtain flowering in the winter-spring period. Before planting, the bulbs are soaked in a warm “Azotobacterin” solution for ½ hour. It is allowed to process planting material with growth stimulants, for example, a solution of “Epin” or “Kornevin”.
Drainage should be poured to the bottom of the pot with charcoal. Then the container is filled with a mixture of soil based on sand, grass and humus soil in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. It is advisable to add a small number of potassium fertilizers and phosphorus.
In a standard pot with a 15-20 cm diameter, you can plant about five bulbs, deepening them 5 or 6 cm. Next, the pot should be placed in a cool place with a temperature of 12-15 ° C. After the leaves appear, the container with freesia should be transferred to a bright, warm room. Additional care consists of maintaining the temperature at 20-22 ° C and watering regularly. The plant should be planted in a permanent place in the open ground in the spring after a stable warm climate has been established.
Plant freesia in open ground flower beds.
Growing freesia outdoors begins with proper planting. In most cases, amateur growers use initial germination of bulbs in pots, followed by planting young plants in a permanent place in the open ground. As a general rule, planting a garden culture is not difficult, but to get a healthy and abundantly flowering plant, you must adhere to the following rules:
- the germination of a flower bulb assumes the presence of a soil warmed by the sun and a constant temperature regime of at least 16-18 ° C;
- The preparation before sowing the bulbs consists of a preliminary soaking in a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate for an hour and a half;
- it is necessary to plant the prepared planting material after the threat of damage to the bulbs by spring return frosts has passed;
- the optimum is cultivation in areas represented by turf soil with the addition of coarse sand and peat chips;
- the soil of the flower garden should be sufficiently porous to moisture, as well as loose and nutritious as possible;
- for each square meter of planting area, it is recommended to add 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium salt and about 30-40 g of bone meal;
13 How to Grow Fragrant Freesia Flowers Description, Species, Facts 2022
- it is essential to provide the culture with a high-quality drainage layer in the form of a brick battle with the addition of charcoal;
- relatively abundant watering measures are carried out before the appearance of shoots, after which the humidity should be increased;
- during the day, the air temperature should be 18-19 ° C, and at night, the temperature regime is allowed to drop to 14-16 ° C;
- To exclude damage to young plants by late spring frosts, it is recommended to use a film coat.
Freesia, or freesia, is a bulbous plant. It is usually grown outdoors, but many growers practice forcing at home. The plant is capricious, difficult to care for. It will take a lot of effort to achieve flowering. The cultivation and care of freesia at home is carried out strictly according to the rules. You will learn about them in this article.
13 How to Grow Fragrant Freesia Flowers Description, Species, Facts 2022
A beautiful flowering plant. The leaves are linear; the flowers are funnel-shaped, fragrant. The height of the flower is 30 to 60 cm. The flowers are quite large, of various colours. The flower owes its name to the German doctor Frees.
It belongs to the bulbs of the Iris family (Iris). It grows mainly in the Cape region of South Africa, tropical regions of Africa. One of the species was introduced from Sudan. Under natural conditions, the bulbs doze for a long time in the ground until the start of the rainy season. With the appearance of moisture in the soil, they begin to develop and actively release flower stalks with beautiful flowers. The aerial part dies completely; the bulbs go into a dormant state.
Interesting! Freesias were brought to Europe a long time ago, two centuries ago. They were actively grown in gardens, then migrated to window sills and grown as a houseplant. Freesia contains essential oils used in perfumery. When cut, the flower retains its freshness for a long time.
What freesias can you grow at home?
Before growing freesia from a bulb at home, it is recommended to choose a variety. However, the information about the flower’s lousy mood is exaggerated. The plant, which grows naturally in a desert climate, adapts easily to apartment conditions. You just need to help him by creating a favourable microclimate.
Suitable for home breeding hybrid freesia, It combines the characteristics of at least two types: broken freesia and Armstrong. They are sometimes grown on their own but require more careful maintenance. The most common “home” variety is the Freesia hybrid. The task of flower growers has been simplified with the introduction of resistant hybrid varieties of Dutch selection. They were specifically bred to grow freesia at home.
Tip! Even before sprouts appear, supports are installed. They use unique suspended structures, dowels. Tapestries can be disguised, painted green. Some hold the peduncles with a thick, transparent fishing line. The flowers are heavy, unsupported; they will lie on the ground.
Landing time and technique
Viable bulbs are selected before planting. They are dense to the touch; there are no signs of rot, the optimal size is 1-2.5 cm. For two weeks, the bulbs are kept at 25-27 ° C in low humidity conditions (they can be put in a high cabinet – it is hot and dry there).
Immediately before planting, a weak solution of potassium permanganate is prepared, the bulbs are soaked in it. Potassium permanganate can be replaced with a 0.2% base solution. Do not peel off the upper scales from the bulbs! The soil is poured with a solution of potassium permanganate, phytosporin or ignited. Then follow the following sequence of actions:
- Drainage holes are made in the bottom of the pot. Lay a drainage layer: expanded clay, pebbles, brick chips. Pour in the prepared soil, leaving 6 cm to the edge.
- The soil is watered. The bulbs are placed in a pot at a distance of 3-5 cm from each other (depending on the size). The sharp point should point upward.
- Pour the soil mixture, deepening the bulbs by 2 cm.
Germination is expected in 2-3 weeks. The pot is kept in a moderately warm place at 16-18 ° C. With the appearance of shoots; bright lighting is provided. The flowering time depends on the variety and the time of sowing. For example, when planted in late October, flowering will occur in early March.
Tip! Freesia is considered a “friendly” plant. You don’t like too much free space. Therefore, it is recommended to plant at least 5 bulbs in a pot. Choose a low and wide pot.
Inexperienced growers often have to deal with a lack of flowering. Properly caring for your freesia at home will help you avoid this.
- Temperature. During the growth period 20-25 ° C. After pruning, the peduncle is kept warm for 1-2 months. After digging up the bulbs and storing them at 15 ° C.
- I was turning it on. Intense sunlight without shadow. Lack of light results in slow growth, little to no flowering.
- I am watering Moderate in the germination phase of the bulb, abundant in the flowering phase. Excessive humidity causes the rotting of the bulbs. Make sure the top layer of the potting mix is dry before watering.
- Humidity. The increased humidity favours growth and flowering. In the heat, they are sprayed more frequently and abundantly. Immediately after spraying, it is protected from the sun to avoid burning the leaves.
- The earth. The prepared soil mixture for bulbous plants is suitable. Independently, the substrate is prepared from humus, green earth, peat, fine gravel with a fraction of 2-3 mm.
- The best dress. Every two weeks during the growing and flowering season. It is recommended to use the drugs Agricola or Fertika-Lux.
Important! After blooming, take your time trimming the wilted foliage. The freesia will form bulbs over several weeks, preparing for the subsequent growth and flowering. Even on wilted leaves, photosynthesis processes continue.
Freesia is an indoor grow, easy to reproduce. The choice of flower growers is offered in two ways: seeds and bulbs.
- Seeds are Used to grow a new hybrid variety. Before sowing, the seeds are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for a day. The boxes are filled with nutritious soil. The optimal composition is equal amounts of leafy soil and grass. The seeds are spread across the surface, lightly sprinkled with soil. Under glass or plastic wrap, seedlings appear faster after 3 weeks. Young seedlings are kept undercover for some time to maintain constant high humidity. For active growth, they are fed weekly phosphorous and potassium.
- Corms. In the process of growth, the main bulb gives birth to children. They can be carefully separated and used for planting in a separate pot. Before planting, the bulbs are kept in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour and dried. They sow several pieces in a pot, deepening by an average of 5 cm. Watering begins only after sprouts appear.
Tip! Freesia bulbs should not be stored in the refrigerator or underground! High humidity will render the planting material useless.
Freesias, growing fragrant flowers in the garden.
When we talk about freesias, we tend to think of one of the most popular fragrant flowers in the world, sold as a cut flower in florists. But do not forget that we can also grow our freesias in the garden, patio or terrace.
Bulb Flowering Plants
- Lily of the valley
Freesia is a genus of the Iridaceae family of approximately 14 small to medium-sized bulbous perennial herbaceous plants with deciduous aerial parts. The first Freesia was described around 1830 by the Danish botanist and plant collector Christian Friedrich Ecklon (Åbenrå 1795 – Cape Town 1868), who named this flower in honour of his friend and colleague, the German doctor Friedrich Freese.
Its native range is found from Kenya to South Africa, mainly in the winter rain region of South Africa. It is widely introduced in France, Italy, Greece and Spain, where Freesia alba is naturalized, dispersed in the northeast quadrant of the peninsula and Freesia refractata, dispersed in the peninsula and the Balearic Islands.
Freesias grow from a conical corm, develop flat, Crocosmia-like leaves, and bloom in winter in their natural habitat, producing an abundance of delicate, long-lasting fragrant flowers. What is most striking about its spike inflorescence is how its unilateral flowers grow, usually numerous, located towards the upper side of the shaft, in such a way that they appear in the form of combs, with the buttons forming a straight row.
In an older delineation of this genus, the species mainly were cream-coloured or white with yellow markings, scented with funnel-shaped flowers.
There are up to 50 different aromatic compounds in its scent regarding its fragrance, and the amount and balance between them change from one variety to another.
As a general rule, red, yellow, and white freesias tend to have a more pungent scent, and blue and pink-flowered freesias tend to have a more subtle fragrance.
Hybrid forms of Freesia
The genus Freesia has a long history of hybridization and cultivation in Europe. The hybridization of Freesia began in 1878, with the cross between F. alba and F. leichtlinii. Still, in the early 20th century, the pink and yellow forms of F. corymbosa were introduced. Interesting hybrids of F. Alexa, one species with different colour forms, have also been obtained.
The modern hybrid freesias, Freesia x kewensis, are derived from crosses between Freesia refracta and Freesia Armstrong, obtaining plants with numerous aromatic flowers, single or double, in different colours (white, yellow, blue, pink and orange). They are trendy as cut flowers and have made this genus one of the most important of the Iridaceae family from a horticultural point of view.
Freesias in the garden
Cultivated freesias are sturdier and taller hybrids than their ancestors but often not quite as fragrant.
The hybrid bulbs are often thermally treated to mimic dry conditions and warm from their native environment, where freesias bloom naturally in winter. As a result, they can be grown as a summer flowers in climates where they cannot be grown naturally in winter. These “ready” bulbs allow freesias to flower 100-120 days after planting in their first year.
The best time to plant freesia corms is between April and June, in a sunny, not too humid spot in the garden. They have to be planted with the tip up at a depth of 5 centimetres, ensuring a distance of 5-8 centimetres between bulbs. When they are planted, they will start to bloom from June to September.
If we grow them in a pot, we can plant 6 bulbs, also with the pointed end up and 5 cm deep, in a 13 cm pot with a substrate that contains organic matter and some drainage. If we use a larger pot, we will use the number of bulbs equivalent to that separation.
You can buy unprepared bulbs in areas with mild climates and few touches of frost in winter. In this case, they will be planted outdoors in August or September to flower in the spring of the following year.
13 How to Grow Fragrant Freesia Flowers Description, Species, Facts 2022
Once the growth appears, we have to water the Freesia regularly to keep the substrate moist and avoid overwatering. When the first flower buds are formed, it is advisable to apply liquid fertilizer with a high potassium content every 10-14 days if the soil is not too fertile.
To prevent the stems from falling, it is necessary to use supports that somehow keep the freesias upright, whether in pots or the ground.
The flower stalks must be cut after the flowers fade, allowing the plant to grow. When the leaves turn yellow or after the first frost, the stems are cut to about 2.5 cm, and the bulbs are dug up, which will be left to dry in a protected place where there is no danger of freezing.
When the bulbs are completely dry, the remains are removed and stored, preferably in sand or peat, in a dry, dark and cool place (13º C) until it is time to replant.
If we have planted them in the garden for cut flowers, it is interesting that freesias with yellow, blue and white flowers have a longer life in the vase than red and pink ones.
Do freesias come back every year?
- Do freesias grow every year? If you live somewhere where it either never (or rarely) freezes then yes, your freesias should grow back. They may even multiply by spreading fertilised seeds so you could have a garden bursting with colour every spring!
Are freesias easy to grow?
Freesias are versatile and can be grown in pots indoors or outdoors, or in the ground. Freesias aren’t frost-hardy so can only be planted outdoors in spring or early summer. Well-drained soil or potting compost is essential as freesias are likely to rot in heavy or waterlogged soil.
What does freesia symbolize?
Freesias can also symbolise innocence and purity, so they’re often gifted to welcome a new baby. They’re pretty popular to use for special occasions like baptisms, christenings and weddings too.
What does freesia smell like?
The blossoms are said to emit hints of honey, mint and strawberry. (They have even been described as smelling like Froot Loops cereal…) Some think freesias’ perfume is soapy and powdery, others woody and citrusy, sunny and peppery.
- Image of Freesia alba
- Freesia alba
- freesia meaning
- freesia smell
- freesia common name
- freesia pronunciation
- freesia bouquet
- white freesia
- nano freesia
13 How to Grow Fragrant Freesia Flowers Description Species Facts 2022